The Sun: Concerning the Iconography and the Titles of the Nineteenth Trump Cards of the “Tarot de Marseille” Patterns

Introduction

The International Playing-Card Society currently differentiate between two Tarot de Marseille patterns, namely, pattern sheet 1 and pattern sheet 2.

For the purposes of the present article, I consider the following versions of pattern sheet 1: a version by Jean Noblet (circa 1659 [1]), a version by Jean-Pierre Payen (1713 [2]), and a version by Jean Dodal (circa 1701 to 1715 [3]).

Concerning pattern sheet 2, I consider the following versions, which may be sufficiently representative of the general iconography of the said pattern sheet: a version by Pierre Madenié (1709 [4]), a version by François-Henri (1718 [5]), a version by François Chosson (1736 [6]), a version by Jean-Baptiste Madenié (1739 [7]), a version by François Tourcaty (1745 [8]), a version by Rochus Schär (1750 [9]), a version by Claude Burdel (1751 [10]), a version by Nicolas Conver (1760 [11]), a version by Jacques Rochias (1782 [12]), a version by Arnoux & Amphoux (1793 [13]), and a version by Bernardin Suzanne (circa 1816 to 1868 [14]).

In describing the general iconography of the seventeenth trump cards of the aforesaid pattern sheets, I reference the current earliest known version of pattern sheet 1, which is the version by Jean Noblet (1659), and the current earliest known version of pattern sheet 2, which is the version by Pierre Madenié (1709).

[Note: images of the twenty-one trump cards of each of the versions of pattern sheet 2 that I list above are currently available for online viewing at http://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html .]

 

Part 1: Descriptions

Iconography - The Sun (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 1-3) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

1. Pattern Sheet 1: Jean Noblet

In figure 1, 18 droplet-shaped objects partially surround an anthropomorphised sun that is depicted as emitting 18 rays.

On the ground below, a male and a female figure stand in front of a wall.

Though no cuffs are depicted above his ankles, the male figure, who stands on the left, appears to be wearing a tight-fitting garment that covers his torso, his arms, his right leg (which is rendered as being blue) and possibly his left leg (which is rendered as being the same colour as the torso, the arms, the legs, and the feet of the aforesaid female figure).

The aforesaid male said figure stands with his left arm slightly extended, almost as though gesturing to the female figure to present her right hand.

The female figure, who would be nude save for the sarong-like garment that is wrapped around her waist, stands on the right with her left hand extended backwards and with her right hand resting on the left shoulder of the aforesaid male figure.

 

1.1.1. Some Iconographic Differences Between Versions of Pattern Sheet 1

1.1.1.1. In the Version by Jean-Pierre Payen (1713):

1.1.1.1.1. Twenty-six droplet-shaped objects surround the anthropomorphised sun, which is depicted as emitting 29 rays.

1.1.1.1.2. Each of the two human figures appears to be rendered as being male (an examination of the fifteenth and seventeenth trump cards of the present version suggests that the lines that are depicted on the chest of the figure who stands on the right are not representations of breasts that are rudimentally rendered).

 

1.1.1.2. In the Version by Jean Dodal (circa 1701 to 1715):

1.1.1.2.1. Twenty-five droplet-shaped objects surround the anthropomorphised sun, which is depicted as emitting 29 rays.

1.1.1.2.2. Each of the two human figures appears to be rendered as being male (an examination of the fifteenth and seventeenth trump cards of the present version suggests that the lines that are depicted on the chest of the figure who stands on the right are not representations of breasts that are rudimentally rendered).

 

1.2. Pattern Sheet 2: Pierre Madenié

In figure 2, 13 droplet-shaped objects partially surround an anthropomorphised sun that is depicted as emitting eight red rays, eight yellow rays, and numerous black rays that are depicted as individual lines.

On the ground below, two male figures, who would be nude save for the garment that is wrapped around the waist of each, stand in front of a wall.

The male figure on the right stands with his left arm extended backwards and with his right hand resting on the left shoulder of the male figure who stands on the left.

 

1.2.1. Some Iconographic Differences Between Versions of Pattern Sheet 2

1.2.1.1. In the Versions by Jean-Baptiste Madenié (1739), by Rochus Schär (1750), and by Claude Burdel (1751):

1.2.1.1.1. Eleven droplet-shaped objects surround the anthropomorphised sun, which is depicted as emitting eight red rays, eight yellow rays, and 16 blue rays. In addition, the said sun is depicted as having hair and a face that is partially encircled by a garland.

1.2.1.1.2. The male figure on the left stands with his left hand resting on the right shoulder of the male figure who stands on the right.

1.2.1.1.3. The male figure on the right stands with his right arm raised and bent at the elbow (forming an angle of approximately 90 degrees) as he points heavenwards.

[Note: though admittedly not conclusive, the depiction of a figure who points heavenwards is appropriate to the theory that I expound in section 2.2.]

 

1.2.1.2. In the Version by Jacques Rochias (1782):

1.2.1.2.1. The male figure on the left stands with his left arm extended backwards and with his right hand resting on the left shoulder of the male figure who stands on the right.

 

1.2.1.3. In the Version by Arnoux & Amphoux (1793):

1.2.1.3.1. Ten droplet-shaped objects are rendered with black outlines and two droplet-shaped objects are rendered without outlines.

 

Part 2: Interpretations

Iconography - The Sun (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 4-6) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

2.1 Concerning the Human Figures

The human figures could be identified as representations of the celestial house (sign) of Gemini, which, in the medieval calendars that are printed in books of hours, may be represented by two male figures, by a male figure and a female figure, by conjoined twins, or by a male figure and a female figure who are conjoined.

In figure 3, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Loire, France, circa 1475 [15], the celestial house of Gemini is represented by two male figures who are at least partially surrounded by a wall and who are positioned in front of a tree that stands on the circumference of a partially depicted circle that appears to be formed by overturned soil.

In Figure 4, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Langres, France, circa 1465 [16], the celestial house of Gemini is represented by two partially embracing male figures who stand in front of two mounds that comprise boulders.

In figure 5, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Paris, France, circa 1480 [17], the celestial house of Gemini is represented by a male figure and a female figure who stand in front of what appears to be a wall or a decorative tapestry and within a circle that is formed by what appears to be a decorative belt or a length of thick rope that is held in place at the height of the pelvis of each figure as a result of being stretched as each figure stands at a short distance from the other.

In figure 6, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Paris, France, circa 1490 to 1500 [18], the celestial house of Gemini is represented by a male figure and a female figure who embrace one another while standing among dense green bushes.

 

Iconography - The Sun (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 7-9) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

In figure 7, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Belgium, France, circa 1480 [19], the celestial house of Gemini is represented by male conjoined twins who stand at the edge of a forest, or in a clearing, and in proximity to a path or a small stream.

In figure 8, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in France circa 1430 [20], the celestial house of Gemini is represented by male figure and a female figure who are conjoined.

For the term book of hours, the editors of the Phillip’s Concise Encyclopedia provide the following definition:

“… [p. 95] Book containing the prescribed order of prayers, rites for the canonical hours, and readings from the Bible. …” [Luck, Steve (Editor) (1997). Philip’s Concise Encyclopedia (First Edition). Michelin House, London: George Philip Limited.]

 

2.2 Concerning the Significance of the Celestial House of Gemini

Since the apparent depictions in the iconography of the seventeenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 of representations of the celestial house of Aquarius can be explained in the context of the liturgical year and, more specifically, in the context of the feast of the Epiphany [21], it may be that the significance of representations of the celestial house of Gemini can be explained in the context of a subsequent solemnity (i.e. a feast that is of the highest of three rankings).

In the calendars that are printed in books of hours, the description of each month of the year is generally accompanied by a representation of a celestial house as follows: that of January by that of Aquarius, that of February by that of Pisces, that of March by that of Aries, that of April by that of Taurus, that of May by that of Gemini, that of June by that of Cancer, that of July by that of Leo, that of August by that of Virgo, that of September by that of Libra, that of October by that of Scorpio, that of November by that of Sagittarius, and that of December by that of Capricorn.

[Note: the dates that follow are expressed in the context of the Roman calendar.]

The feast of the Epiphany is followed by the feast of Saint Joseph, which is a fixed solemnity that is celebrated in March [22] (Aries).

The feast of Saint Joseph is followed by the feast of the Annunciation, which is a fixed solemnity that, like the aforesaid feast, is celebrated in March [23].

The feast of the Annunciation is followed by the feast of Easter (Pascha), which is a moveable solemnity that is celebrated on the first Sunday following the first full moon to follow the vernal equinox [24]. Consequently, the said feast may be celebrated in March or in April (Taurus).

The feast of Easter is followed by the feast of the Ascension, which is a moveable solemnity that is celebrated on a Thursday, forty days subsequent to the feast of Easter [25].

Using the dates of the feast of Easter that are provided online at http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/cal/medcal.shtml, I was able to calculate the following:

2.2.1.1. During the period that spans 1300 to 1400, the feast of the Ascension would have been celebrated in May (Gemini) during all but the years 1318, 1329, 1356, and 1383.

2.2.1.2. During the period that spans 1401 to 1582, the feast of the Ascension would have been celebrated in May during all but the years 1508, 1519, 1546, and 1573.

2.2.1.3. Subsequent to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar and during the period that spans 1583 to 1600, the feast of the Ascension would have been celebrated in May during all but the year 1598.

2.2.1.4. During the period that spans 1601 to 1660, which is the year following the year during which the earliest known version of pattern sheet 1 is thought to have been published, the feast of the Ascension would have been celebrated in May during all but the years 1628 and 1639.

Based on the aforesaid data, a representation of the celestial house of Gemini could be explained as a reference to the month of May and to the feast of the Ascension.

 

2.3. The Moon: a Note on the Eighteenth Trump Cards of Pattern Sheets 1 and 2

Since The Moon precedes The Sun in numerical order, it appears to be unlikely, assuming the validity of the theory that I expound in section 2.2., that the iconography of The Moon is a reference to the celestial house of Cancer and, by extension, to the month of June.

Though the celestial house of Cancer may be represented by a crab, a crayfish, or a lobster, the crustacean that features in the iconography of the eighteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be explained as a reference to the moon, which, in Astrology, is associated with aquatic organisms in general [26].

The dogs that feature in the iconography of the eighteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be explained as references to Diana, who is described as being not only a goddess of the earth, of birth, and of hunting, but also of the moon [27].

In consideration of the aforementioned, the aforesaid elements of the iconography of the eighteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be explained as references to the moon.

 

2.4. Concerning the Wall

Though no fruits are depicted and though the human figures appear to be rendered as being male, figure 3 could be described as being an indirect reference to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.

Figure 9, which is taken from the bottom of the page from which figure 6 is taken, features a representation of Biblical Adam, of Biblical Eve, and of the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Joseph. A comparison of figures 6 and 9 suggests that the male figure and the female figure that are depicted in the former are representations of Adam and Eve when younger than depicted in the latter.

Assuming that figure 3, figure 6, and figure 9 are examples of a precedent of using human representations of the celestial house of Gemini as indirect references to Adam and Eve, and assuming that the human figures that are depicted in the iconography of the nineteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 are used accordingly and whether in addition to being used as references to the month of May and to the feast of the Ascension or not, the wall could be explained as a reference to the Garden of Eden, which, in the art of renaissance Europe, may be depicted as being bounded by walls.

 

Iconography - The Sun (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 10-13) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

Figure 10, which is taken from an illuminated manuscript that is titled, Des Cas de Nobles Hommes et Femmes, depicts the Garden of Eden and Adam and Eve at various stages of the Biblical narrative in which they feature. The image that is depicted in figure 10 is thought to have been produced in Paris, France, circa 1413 to 1415 [28].

[Note: in a separate article [29], I demonstrate that the female figure that is depicted in the iconography of the corresponding trump card of the Tarocco Bolognese could be identified as a representation of Biblical Eve subsequent to the Fall.

Figure 11 is taken from a version of the Tarocco Bolognese that is thought to have been produced during the late fifteenth century or the early sixteenth century [30].

Figure 12 is taken from a version of the Tarocco Bolognese that is thought to have been produced circa 1930 to 1970 [31].]

 

2.5. The Moon and The Sun: Concerning the Titles of the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Trump Cards of Pattern Sheets 1 and 2

In the art of medieval and early renaissance Europe [32], illustrations of the Crucifixion may include depictions of both the sun and the moon as references to the period of darkness that is said to have followed and that is attributed by some to an eclipse [33].

In consideration of the aforementioned, the titles of the eighteenth and the nineteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be explained as indirect references to the Crucifixion. Accordingly, the titles of the seventeenth, the eighteenth, and the nineteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be explained as references to events that, in Catholic theology, precede the Last Judgement i.e. The Star as a reference to the birth of Christ and The Moon and The Sun as references to the Crucifixion.

In figure 13, which is taken from a scan of an illustration of the Crucifixion that is dated 586 AD or 586 CE [34], the moon is depicted to the left of Christ and the sun is depicted to the right of Christ.

[Note: the theory that I expound in the present section could be applied to any pattern sheet that comprises correspondingly titled and numbered trump cards.]

 

2.6. Concerning the Significance of Depictions of Adam and Eve in the Context of the Crucifixion

Since illustrations of the Crucifixion may feature such references to the Fall of Man as include the skull of Adam as imagined by the respective artist [35], depictions of Adam, of Eve, or of both, which constitute references to the Fall of Man, could be explained as indirect references to the Crucifixion.

 

2.7. Concerning the Significance of the Droplet-Shaped Objects

In the relevant versions of pattern sheet 1, the droplet-shaped objects feature only in the iconography of the eighteenth, the nineteenth, and the twentieth trump cards.

In the relevant versions of pattern sheet 2, the droplet-shaped objects feature only in the iconography of the eighteenth and the nineteenth trump cards.

Regrettably, I have yet to conceive of one or more satisfactory explanations for the aforesaid objects, which are reminiscent of the circular objects that feature in the iconography of the sixteenth trump cards of the aforesaid patterns and of the rhomboid-like objects that feature in the iconography of the ace of batons and of the ace of swords of the said patterns.

 

Part 3: Apparent References to the Celestial House of Gemini in the Iconography of the Corresponding Trump Cards of Other Pattern Sheets

Iconography - The Sun (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 14-16) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

3.1 ITA Sheet 3S

ITA Sheet 3S is the call number for a collection of six complete and fourteen partial illustrations that are printed on a single sheet of paper that is currently housed at the Yale University Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. For ease of expression, I hereinafter refer to the pattern sheet that is represented by ITA Sheet 3 as ITA 3S.

Figure 14, which is taken from a scan of  ITA Sheet 3S, is of a partial trump card that appears to be the equivalent in ITA 3S of the nineteenth trump cards of patterns sheets 1 and 2.

In the aforesaid figure, a partial human figure stands beneath an anthropomorphised sun while wielding what may be a large banner. The said figure, which is depicted as either having a hairstyle that resembles a Phrygian cap that resembles half an egg or as wearing such a cap, could be identified as a representation of Castor or of Pollux, who are said by some authors to have been hatched from eggs and by others to have been transferred to the constellation of Gemini [36].

Figure 15 is of a photo of a statue of Castor and a statue of Pollux, who are collectively referred to as the Dioskouroi and who, as may be revealed by the images that are stored in the digital library of the Wikimedia Commons, may be depicted or sculpted on horseback or on foot and in proximity to horses and who may be depicted or sculpted with or without Phrygian caps.

 

3.2 The Tarot de Jacques Viéville

The young male horseman that is depicted in Figure 17, which is taken from a scan of the nineteenth trump card of the Tarot de Jacques Viéville, could be identified as a representation of Castor or of Pollux on horseback. 

As with the male figure that I describe in section 3.1., it is remarkable that the male figure that is depicted in the iconography of the present trump card should be depicted as gazing heavenwards.

The iconography of the nineteenth trump card of the Tarot de Jacques Viéville is comparable to that of the corresponding trump card of the Belgian Tarot, which likewise features a banner-wielding horseman.

The pack from which figure 17 is taken are dated to dated 1650 [37].

 

Part 4: in Summary

4.1. The human figures of patterns sheets 1 and 2 could be identified as representations of the constellation of Gemini and explained as references to the Month of May and to the feast of the Ascension, as indirect references to the Biblical Adam and the Biblical Eve, or both.

4.2. Assuming that the apparent representations of the constellation of Gemini are indirect references to the Biblical Adam and the Biblical Eve, the depiction of a wall could be explained as a reference to the Garden of Eden.

4.3. The titles of the eighteenth and the nineteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be explained as indirect references to the Crucifixion.

 

References:

1. Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Noblet”. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109641.item. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

2. Tarot From [sic.] Jean-Pierre Payen. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_payen1713.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

3. Jeu de tarot de Marseille destiné à l’exportation. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10537343h.item. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

4. Tarot From [sic.] Pierre Madenié. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_madenie1709.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

5. Tarot From [sic.] François Henri. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_heri1718.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

6. Tarot From [sic.] François Chosson. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_chosson1736.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

7. Tarot From [sic.] Jean-Baptiste Madenié. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html Retrieved 19 February 2020.

8. Tarot From [sic.] François Tourcaty. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

9. Tarot From [sic.] Rochus Schär. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

10. Tarot From [sic.] Claude Burdel. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

11. Tarot From [sic.] Nicolas Conver. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

12. Tarot From [sic.] Jacques Rochias. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

13. Tarot From [sic.] Arnoux & Amphoux. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

14. Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes, dit “de Marseille”. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10539486k.item. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

15. MS G.1 I fol. 5r. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=76958. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

16. MSG.55 fol. 6r. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=77045. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

17. MS M.253 fol. 5v. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=77217. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

18. MS M.7 fol. 2v. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=76834. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

19. MS M.6 fol. 6v. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=76831. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

20. MS M.64 fol. 5v. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=77024. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

21. The Star: Concerning the Iconography of the Seventeenth Trump Cards of the Tarot de Marseille Patterns. URL: https://diaryofafortuneteller.wordpress.com/2019/05/15/the-star-on-the-iconography-of-the-seventeenth-trump-cards-of-the-tarot-de-marseille-patterns/. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

22. Solemnity. URL: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solemnity. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

23. Solemnity. URL: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solemnity. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

24. Addis, William E and Arnold, Thomas (1893). A Catholic Dictionary: Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church. London: Kegan Paul, trench, Trübner & Co. LTD. Page 308.

25. Addis, William E and Arnold, Thomas (1893). A Catholic Dictionary: Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church. London: Kegan Paul, trench, Trübner & Co. LTD. Page 59.

26. Lilly, William (1659). Christian Astrology (2nd ed.). London: Macock, John. Page 82.

27. Earls, Irene (1987). Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Page 88. ISBN 0-313-24658-0.

28. The Story of Adam and Eve. URL: http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/105151/boucicaut-master-the-story-of-adam-and-eve-french-about-1413-1415/?artview=dor136236&dz=0.5194,0.2948,1.23. Retrieved: 17 February 2020.

29. Concerning the Iconography of The Sun of the Tarocco Bolognese Pattern and the Tarocco Siciliano Patterns. URL: https://diaryofafortuneteller.wordpress.com/2019/08/02/concerning-the-iconography-of-the-sun-of-the-tarocco-bolognese-pattern-and-the-tarocco-siciliano-patterns/. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

30. Rothschild collection sheet/ [sic.] and another six card [sic.] sheet from Bibliotheque d’Ercole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts (Bolognese pattern). URL: http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/rothschild/. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

31. WWPCM05239. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05239/d05239.htm. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

32. Earls, Irene (1987). Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Pages 73 to 74. ISBN 0-313-24658-0.

33. Earls, Irene (1987). Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Pages 73 to 74. ISBN 0-313-24658-0.

34. Meister des RabulaEvangeliums. URL: https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_des_Rabula-Evangeliums_002.jpg#mw-jump-to-license. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

35. Earls, Irene (1987). Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Pages 73 to 74. ISBN 0-313-24658-0.

36. Clement, Clara Erskine (1881). A Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art (14th ed.). Boston: James R. Osgood and Company. Pages 442-443.

37. Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Viéville”. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10510963k. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

 

Images:

1. Figure 1: Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Noblet”. BNF Gallica. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109641.item. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

2. Figure 2: Tarot cards by Pierre Madenié. Tarot de Marseille Heritage. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

3. Figure 3: MS G.1 l fol. 5r. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/5/76958. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

4. Figure 4: MS G.55 fol. 6r. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/8/77045. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

5. Figure 5: MS M.253 fol. 5v. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/10/77217. Retrieved 19 February 2020.

6. Figures 6: MS M.7 fol. 2v. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/3/76834. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

7. Figure 7: MS M.6 fol. 6v. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/10/76831. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

8. Figure 8: MS M.64 fol. 5v. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/10/77024. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

9. Figure 9: MS M.7 fol. 2v. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: https://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/3/76834. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

10. Figure 10: The Story of Adam and Eve. J Paul Getty Trust. URL: http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/105151/boucicaut-master-the-story-of-adam-and-eve-french-about-1413-1415/?artview=dor136236&dz=0.5194,0.2948,1.23. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

11. Figure 11: Rothschild collection sheet/ [sic.] and another six card [sic.] sheet from Bibliotheque d’Ercole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts (Bolognese pattern). URL: http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/rothschild/. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

12. Figure 12: WWPCM05239. World Web Playing Card Museum. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05239/d05239.htm. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

13. Figure 13: Meister des RabulaEvangeliums. Wikimedia Commons. URL: https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_des_Rabula-Evangeliums_002.jpg#mw-jump-to-license. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

14. Figure 14: Cary Collection of Playing Cards. Yale University. URL: https://brbl-dl.library.yale.edu/vufind/Record/3835917. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

15. Figure 15: Dioskouroi. Wikimedia Commons. URL: https://commons.m.wikipeida.org/wiki/File:Dioskouroi_Met_L.2008.18.1-2_n03.jpg#mw-jump-to-license. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

16. Figure 16: Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Viéville”. BNF Gallica. URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10510963k. Retrieved: 19 February 2020.

 

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