The Star: Concerning the Iconography of the Seventeenth Trump Cards of the “Tarot de Marseille” Patterns

Introduction

The International Playing-Card Society currently differentiate between two Tarot de Marseille patterns, namely, pattern sheet 1 and pattern sheet 2.

For the purposes of the present article, I consider the following versions of pattern sheet 1: a version by Jean Noblet (circa 1659 [1]), a version by Jean-Pierre Payen (1713 [2]), and a version by Jean Dodal (circa 1701 to 1715 [3]).

Concerning pattern sheet 2, I consider the following versions, which may be sufficiently representative of the general iconography of the said pattern sheet: a version by Pierre Madenié (1709 [4]), a version by François-Henri (1718 [5]), a version by François Chosson (1736 [6]), a version by Jean-Baptiste Madenié (1739 [7]), a version by François Tourcaty (1745 [8]), a version by Rochus Schär (1750 [9]), a version by Claude Burdel (1751 [10]), a version by Nicolas Conver (1760 [11]), a version by Jacques Rochias (1782 [12]), a version by Arnoux & Amphoux (1793 [13]), and a version by Bernardin Suzanne (circa 1816 to 1868 [14]).

In describing the general iconography of the seventeenth trump cards of the aforesaid pattern sheets, I reference the current earliest known version of pattern sheet 1, which is the version by Jean Noblet (1659), and the current earliest known version of pattern sheet 2, which is the version by Pierre Madenié (1709).

[Note: images of the twenty-one trump cards of each of the versions of pattern sheet 2 that I list above are currently available for online viewing at http://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html.%5D

 

Part 1: Descriptions

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 1-4) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

1.1. Pattern Sheet 1: Jean Noblet

In figure 1, seven six-pointed stars partially surround a larger star that is depicted as emitting eight primary rays and eight secondary rays.

On the ground below, a nude adult female stands on her left knee and grasps with each hand the handle of a vessel. She pours into a body of water the liquid contents of the vessel that she grasps with her right hand and she appears to pour onto the ground the liquid contents of the vessel that she grasps with her left hand.

The female figure appears to stand on the stream of liquid that issues from the vessel that she grasps with her left hand.

Two trees stand in the background: one is positioned to the left of the female figure and the other is positioned to her right.

 

1.1.1. Observations:

1.1.1.1. Since the surface upon which falls the water that issues from the vessel that the female figure grasps with her left hand is not depicted, one could argue that she pours into the body of water the contents of both vessels.

1.1.1.2. It would appear that the body of water covers the area of land that lies between the green area of land upon which the female figure stands and the blue areas of land that lie behind her:

1.1.1.2.1. Figure 2: though the relevant area is painted green, each horizontal line that is depicted to the right of the stream of liquid that issues from the vessel that the female figure grasps with her right hand is approximately level with a horizontal line that is depicted to the left of the said stream of liquid.

1.1.1.2.2. Figure 3: though the relevant area is painted red, the three horizontal lines that connect to the sole of the left foot of the female figure are slightly convex, giving the appearance of partially depicted ripples.

1.1.1.2.3. Figure 3: the six vertical lines that connect to the horizontal lines that I describe in point 1.1.1.2.2. appear to represent the reflection of the yellow plant that stands on the dark blue area of land.

1.1.1.2.4. Figure 4: in contrast to the lines that I describe in points 1.1.1.2.1. and 1.1.1.2.2., the three horizontal lines that are depicted below and to the right of the left foot of the female figure are slightly concave, giving the appearance of the texture of part of a distinct surface.

 

1.1.2. Some Iconographic Differences Between Versions of Pattern Sheet 1

1.1.2.1. In the Versions by Jean-Pierre Payen (1713) and by Jean Dodal (circa 1701 to 1715):

1.1.2.1.1. When counting the seven smaller stars clockwise from right to left, the first, second, third, and fourth stars are eight-pointed and the fifth, sixth, and seventh stars are seven-pointed.

1.1.2.1.2. The female figure rests her left knee on the surface of a platform.

1.1.2.1.3. A large bird perches on the top of the tree that stands behind and to the left of the female figure.

1.1.2.1.4. The body of water does not appear to cover any part of the area of land that lies behind and to the right of the female figure.

 

1.2. Pattern Sheet 2: Pierre Madenié

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 5-8) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

In figure 5, seven stars partially surround a larger star that is depicted as emitting eight primary rays and eight secondary rays. When counting the seven smaller stars clockwise from right to left, the first and seventh stars are seven-pointed and the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth stars are eight-pointed.

On the ground below, a nude adult female stands on her left knee, which rests on the surface of a platform, as she grasps with each hand the handle of a vessel. She pours into a body of water the liquid contents of the vessel that she grasps with her right hand and she appears to pour onto the ground the liquid contents of the vessel that she grasps with her left hand.

Two trees stand in the background: one is positioned to the left of the female figure and the other is positioned to her right.

A large bird perches on the top of the tree that stands to the left of the female figure.

 

1.2.1. Some Iconographic Differences Between Versions of Pattern Sheet 2

1.2.1.1. In the Version by Rochus Schär (1750):

1.2.1.1.1. Two large birds are depicted: one bird perches on the top of the tree that stands behind and to the left of the female figure and the other bird perches on the top of the tree that stands behind and to the right of the female figure.

 

1.2.1.2. In the Version by Claude Burdel (1751):

1.2.1.2.1. When counting the seven smaller stars clockwise from right to left, the second star is nine-pointed.

 

1.2.1.3. In the Version by Jacques Rochias (1782):

1.2.1.3.1. The larger star is ten-pointed and the seven smaller stars are five-pointed.

1.2.1.3.2. No birds are depicted.

 

Part 2: A Possible Predecessor

2.1 ITA Sheet 3S

ITA Sheet 3S is the call number for a collection of six complete and fourteen partial illustrations that are printed on a single sheet of paper that is currently housed at the Yale University Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. For ease of expression, I hereinafter refer to the pattern sheet that is represented by ITA Sheet 3S as ITA 3S.

Since the illustrations that are printed on ITA Sheet 3S may have been printed as early as 1500 [15] and since the iconography of the seventeenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 is comparable to the iconography of the corresponding trump card of ITA 3S, it may be that the iconography of the seventeenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 derives from the iconography of the corresponding trump card of ITA 3S.

 

2.2 A Description of the Iconography of the Corresponding Trump Card of ITA 3S

In figure 6, two pairs of eight-pointed stars are positioned on either side of a larger star that is depicted as emitting eight primary rays and 22, 23, or 24 secondary rays.

On the ground below, a nude adult figure pours into a body of water the liquid contents of two vessels.

A sixth eight-pointed star is depicted on the shoulder of the adult figure.

 

2.3. Concerning the Depicted Gender of the Adult Figure

The adult figure appears to be a representation of an adult male: the juxtaposition of figure 7 with figure 8 demonstrates that the pectoral muscles of the said figure are distinct from the breasts of the representation of the devil, which is illustrated below and to the left of the illustration that is depicted in figure 6.

 

Part 3: Interpretations

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 9-11) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

3.1 Concerning the Female Figure of Pattern Sheets 1 and 2

The female figure could be identified as a representation of the celestial house (sign) of Aquarius.

Figure 9, which is taken from a medieval calendar that is thought to have been produced in Paris, France, circa 1480 [16], is an unrelated example of a female representation of the celestial house of Aquarius.

 

3.2 Concerning the Adult Figure of ITA 3S

The adult figure of ITA 3 could be identified as a male representation of the celestial house of Aquarius.

 

3.3 Concerning the Significance of the Celestial House of Aquarius

To determine the significance of the celestial house of Aquarius in the context of iconography that may have been conceived during the 1500s or earlier, as may be evidenced by ITA 3S, it may be that one must consider the significance of the zodiac in the context of the primarily religious [17] art of medieval Europe.

As Greek and Arabic texts on astronomy and astrology were gradually translated into Latin during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries [18], representations of the celestial houses were gradually incorporated into Christian art as representations of such abstract concepts as include the twelve months of the year [19] and of such figures as include the twelve apostles, the four archangels, and the four evangelists [20].

Since there is no apparent reason to suppose that the depiction of a female representation of the celestial house of Aquarius was intended to serve as a reference to an apostle, to an evangelist, or to an archangel, it may be that one must consider the significance of the celestial house of Aquarius in the context of time.

In the medieval calendars that are printed in numerous examples of books of hours, the description of each month of the year is generally accompanied by a representation of a celestial house as follows: that of January by that of Aquarius, that of February by that of Pisces, that of March by that of Aries, that of April by that of Taurus, that of May by that of Gemini, that of June by that of Cancer, that of July by that of Leo, that of August by that of Virgo, that of September by that of Libra, that of October by that of Scorpio, that of November by that of Sagittarius, and that of December by that of Capricorn.

For the term book of hours, the editors of the Phillip’s Concise Encyclopedia provide the following definition:

“… [p. 95] Book containing the prescribed order of prayers, rites for the canonical hours, and readings from the Bible. …” [Luck, Steve (Editor) (1997). Philip’s Concise Encyclopedia (First Edition). Michelin House, London: George Philip Limited. ISBN 0-540-06421-1]

Figures 10 and 11, which are taken from the book of hours from which is taken figure 9, are scans of the two pages upon which are described the month of January of the relevant year.

Taking into consideration the aforesaid, it may be that the female figure of pattern sheets 1 and 2 and the male figure of ITA 3S were intended to serve as references to the month of January.

 

3.4 Concerning the Significance of the Month of January

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 12-13) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

The distinctly religious themes of certain of the trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2 and ITA 3S suggest that the significance of the month of January may pertain to the liturgical year. If indeed, the juxtaposition of a relatively large star with several relatively smaller stars could be explained as a reference to the Star of Bethlehem and to the feast of the Epiphany, which is described as follows in a dictionary that is titled, A Catholic Dictionary:

“[p. 110] … A feast kept on January 6 to commemorate the manifestation of Christ’s glory – (1) when the Magi adored Him; (2) in His baptism, when the voice from heaven proclaimed Him the Son of God; (3) in the miracle of changing water into wine, when Christ began His miracles and “manifested” His glory. …” [Addis, William E and Arnold, Thomas (1893). A Catholic Dictionary: Doctrine, Discipline, Rites, Ceremonies, Councils, and Religious Orders of the Catholic Church. London: Kegan Paul, trench, Trübner & Co. LTD.]

Figures 12 and 13 are two contextually relevant examples of medieval Christian art that features representations of the celestial houses.

In figure 12, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Paris, France, circa 1500 [21], a representation of the celestial house of Aquarius is illustrated to the left of an illustration that depicts representations of Mary, the Christ Child, and three Biblical Magi.

In figure 13, which is taken from a book of hours that is thought to have been produced in Tours, France, circa 1500 [22], a representation of the celestial house of Aquarius is illustrated to the right of an illustration that depicts representations of Mary, the Christ Child, and three Biblical Magi.

 

3.5. Concerning the Number of Stars

In the context of the feast of the Epiphany, the depiction of eight stars, as in the iconography of the seventeenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2, could be explained as a reference to the duration of the said feast, which was officially celebrated as an octave (i.e. over eight days) prior to 1956.

The depiction of six stars, as in the iconography of the corresponding trump card of ITA 3S, could be explained as a reference to the sixth day of January.

 

3.6. Concerning the Significance of the Bird or Birds

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 14-19) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

Since all but one of the applicable illustrations feature only one bird, it would appear that the depiction of two birds constitutes a variation of what may be considered the standard practice of depicting only one bird.

Assuming that the depiction of a bird is intended to serve as a reference, it may be that in order to identify that which is referenced, one must identify the species of bird that is depicted. Unfortunately, it would appear, based on the general shape of the beak of each bird, on the size of the head of each bird, on the length of the neck of each bird, on the length of the tail of each bird, and on the number of tail feathers of each bird, that several distinct species are depicted.

Figure 14, which is taken from the version of pattern sheet 1 by Jean Dodal, and figure 15, which is taken from the version of pattern sheet 2 by Pierre Madenié, are two examples of the apparent diversity of the species of birds that are depicted.

Figure 16, which is taken from the version of pattern sheet 2 by Bernardin Suzanne, depicts an object that is not easily identified.

Of the thirteen birds that are depicted in the applicable illustrations, six are depicted with three tail feathers and of the six birds that are depicted with three tail feathers, at least three could be identified as birds of prey, namely, the bird that is depicted in the version by François-Henri, which is depicted with a raptor-like beak, the bird that is depicted to the right of the female figure in the version by Rochus Schär, which is depicted with a raptor-like beak, and the bird that is depicted in the version by Nicolas Conver, which, as is evidenced by figure 17, is depicted with a crest that is reminiscent of the crest of the imperial eagle that is depicted in figure 18, which is taken from the third trump card of the same version, and the crest of the imperial eagle that is depicted in figure 19, which is taken from the fourth trump card of the same version.

In the contexts of the Greek myths concerning the constellation of Aquarius, the depiction of an eagle could be explained as a reference to those narratives in which Ganymede, who is one of at least three figures with whom classical authors associate the said constellation [23], is abducted either by the eagle Aquila, who takes instruction from an enamoured Zeus, or by Zeus himself, in the guise of an eagle [24].

Assuming the validity of the aforesaid supposition, the depiction of birds that do not appear to be raptors could be explained as an indication that the relevant artists were not aware of the said reference and that they, being unable to identify the birds that are depicted in the versions after which they modelled their own versions, proceeded according to their own preferences.

Though it may not be possible, in the absence of one or more written commentaries by one or more of the relevant artists, to reach one or more definitive conclusions concerning the depiction of one or more birds, the suppositions that I outline in sections 3.1. to 3.5., in addition to the absence of a bird in the illustration of the seventeenth trump card of the version of pattern sheet 1 by Jean Noblet and in the illustration of the corresponding trump card of ITA 3S, suggest that the depiction of a bird may initially have been intended as a purely supplementary addition.

 

4. Apparent References to the Feast of the Epiphany in the Iconography of the Corresponding Trump Cards of Other Pattern Sheets

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 20-24) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

4.1. The Tarocco Bolognese

Figures 20, 21, and 22 each appear to depict representations of three Biblical Magi in the foreground and a representation of the Star of Bethlehem in the background.

Figure 20 is taken from a version of the Tarocco Bolognese that is thought to have been produced during the late fifteenth century or the early sixteenth century [25]. Figure 21 is a scan of the corresponding trump card of a version of the Tarocco Bolognese that is thought to have been produced circa 1600 to 1700 [26]. Figure 22 is a scan of the corresponding trump card of the Tarocco Bolognese that is thought to have been produced circa 1850 [27].

In the art of medieval and renaissance Europe, the Biblical Magi may be depicted as numbering two, three, four, six, or twelve, as being dressed in eastern attire, as being dressed in the fashions of the time and of the place of the artist, as wearing Phrygian hats, as wearing crowns, as riding horses, and as bearing such gifts as include goblets, bowls, coins, or crowns [28] [29]. Concerning figures 21 and 22, the apparent depiction of a Biblical Magus who wears a papal tiara could be explained as an example of the artistic practice of identifying at least one Magi with a Christian patron, subject to the preferences of the artist [30].

 

4.2. The Minchiate Patterns

Figure 23, which is a scan of the corresponding trump card of a version of the early Minchiate pattern that is dated 1763 [31], appears to depict a biblical Magus on horseback in the foreground and the Star of Bethlehem in the background. Figure 24, which is taken from a version of the later Minchiate pattern that is thought to have been produced circa 1712 to 1716 [32], is comparable.

 

Iconography - The Star (Pattern Sheets 1 and 2) (Figures 25-29) (Diary of a Fortune-Teller)

 

4.3. The Tarocco Siciliano

Figure 25, which is a scan of the corresponding trump card of a version of the early Tarocco Siciliano pattern that is thought to have been produced during the 1700s [33], appears to depict a crowned biblical Magus who is mounted on a horse and who holds aloft a disk upon which is depicted a star. Save for the depiction of a crown, figures 26 and 27 are comparable. Figure 26 is a scan of the corresponding trump card of a version of the later Tarocco Siciliano pattern that is thought to have been produced during the 1800s [34]. Figure 27 is a scan of the corresponding trump card of a version of the later Tarocco Siciliano pattern that is thought to have been produced circa 1930 to 1975 [35].

 

4.4. The Tarot de Jacques Viéville

In figure 28, which is a scan of the corresponding trump card of the Tarot de Jacques Viéville, five stars are depicted in the sky and a sixth star is depicted near the top of what appears to be a large monstrance that stands at the feet of an adult male figure. As I note in section 3.4., the depiction of six stars could be explained as a reference to the sixth day of January.

The pack from which figure 28 is taken are dated 1650 [36].

 

5. In Summary

5.1. The female figures of pattern sheets 1 and 2 could be identified as representations of the constellation of Aquarius and references to the month of January and to the feast of the Ephiphany, which appears to be referenced in the iconography of at least six other pattern sheets.

5.2. The depiction of a bird or birds may have been intended to serve as a reference to the constellation of Aquarius owing to relevant narratives of Ganymede and Zeus.

 

6. Additional Comments and Observations

6.1. Concerning the representation of the Devil that is depicted in figure 8 (ITA 3S), it is remarkable that in the iconography of the fifteenth trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2, the representation of the Devil is also depicted as having breasts.

6.2. The border that is illustrated at the bottom of the trump card that is depicted in figure 21 (pattern sheet 11) resembles the boundary of the mandorla that surrounds the human figure in the iconography of the twenty-first trump cards of pattern sheets 1 and 2.

The aforesaid border is illustrated on four other trump cards of the same version of pattern sheet 11, namely, on Death, on The Tower, on The Moon, and on The World.

6.3. The arrangement of the stars that are depicted in the sky in figure 28 (Tarot de Jacques Viéville) is identical to the arrangement of the corresponding stars in figure 6 (ITA 3S). In addition, each illustration features a star that is not depicted in the sky and that is consequentially less conspicuous.

 

References:

1. Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Noblet”. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109641.item. Retrieved 13 September 2019.

2. Tarot From [sic.] Jean-Pierre Payen. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_payen1713.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

3. Jeu de tarot de Marseille destiné à l’exportation. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10537343h.item. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

4. Tarot From [sic.] Pierre Madenié. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_madenie1709.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

5. Tarot From [sic.] François Henri. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_heri1718.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

6. Tarot From [sic.] François Chosson. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/catalogue_chosson1736.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

7. Tarot From [sic.] Jean-Baptiste Madenié. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

8. Tarot From [sic.] François Tourcaty. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

9. Tarot From [sic.] Rochus Schär. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

10. Tarot From [sic.] Claude Burdel. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

11. Tarot From [sic.] Nicolas Conver. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

12. Tarot From [sic.] Jacques Rochias. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

13. Tarot From [sic.] Arnoux & Amphoux. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

14. Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes, dit “de Marseille”. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10539486k.item. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

15. Cary Collection of Playing Cards. https://brbl-dl.library.yale.edu/vufind/Record/3835917. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

16. MS M.253 fol.1v. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=77217&V1=1. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

17. Hourihane, Colum P (Editor in Chief) (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia [sic.] of Medieval Art and Architecture: Volume 1. Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016: Oxford University Press. Page vii. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5.

18. Hourihane, Colum P (Editor in Chief) (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia [sic.] of Medieval Art and Architecture: Volume 1. Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016: Oxford University Press. Page 184. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5.

19. Hourihane, Colum P (Editor in Chief) (2012). The Grove Encyclopedia [sic.] of Medieval Art and Architecture: Volume 1. Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016: Oxford University Press. Page 184. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5.

20. Ross, Leslie (1996). Medieval Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Pages 270 and 271. ISBN 0-313-29329-5.

21. MSH.5 fol. 1r. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=76991. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

22. MSH.8 fol. 1r. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=77089. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

23. Condos, Theony (Translator and Commentator) (1997). Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans: A Sourcebook. Grand Rapids, MI 49516, U.S.A.: Phanes Press. Page 30. ISBN 1-890482-92-7 (alk. paper). ISBN 1-890482-93-5 (pbk. : alk. paper).

24. Roman, Luke and Roman, Monica (2010). Encyclopedia [sic.] of Greek and Roman Mythology. New York, NY 1001: Facts on File, Inc. Page 175. ISBN 978-0-8160-7242-2 (he : alk. paper).

25. Rothschild collection sheet/ [sic.] and another six card [sic.] sheet from Bibliotheque d’Ercole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts (Bolognese pattern). URL: http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/rothschild/. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

26. Jeu de tarot bolonais à enseignes italiennes, dit “alla Torre”. URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109607. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

27. Jeu de Tarocchino à deux têtes. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105088141/f1.planchecontact. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

28. Ross, Leslie (1996). Medieval Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Pages 4 and 5. ISBN 0-313-29329-5.

29. Earls, Irene (1987). Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary. Westport, CT 06881: Greenwood Press. Pages 7 and 8. ISBN 0-313-24658-0.

30. Ibid. Pages 7 and 8.

31. Jeu de Minchiate. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105373422#. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

32. Jeu de Minchiate à enseignes italiennes imprimé sur soie. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10336508z#. Retrieved: 12 September. 2019.

33. WWPCM05238. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05238/d05238.htm. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

34. WWPCM05237. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05237/d05237.htm. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

35. WWPCM05239. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05239/d05239.htm. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

36. Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Viéville. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10510963k#. Retrieved: 12 September 2019.

 

Images:

1. Figure 1: Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Noblet”. BNF Gallica. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109641.item. Retrieved: 13 September 2019.

2. Figures 5 and 15: Tarot cards by Pierre Madenié. Tarot de Marseille Heritage. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

3. Figures 6 and 8: Cary Collection of Playing Cards. ITA Sheet 3S. Yale University. URL: https://brbl-dl.library.yale.edu/vufind/Record/3835917. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

4. Figures 9, 10, and 11: MS M.253 fol. 1v. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=77217&V1=1. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

5. Figure 12: MS H.5 folio 1r. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=76991&V1=1. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

6. Figure 13: MS H.8 folio 1r. The Morgan Library and Museum. URL: http://corsair.themorgan.org/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?BBID=77089. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

7. Figure 14: Jeu de tarot de Marseille destiné à l’exportation. BNF Gallica. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10537343h. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

8. Figure 16: Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes, dit “de Marseille”. BNF Gallica. URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10539486k. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

9. Figure 17, 18, and 19: Tarot cards by Nicolas Conver. Tarot de Marseille Heritage. URL: https://www.tarot-de-marseille-heritage.com/english/historic_tarots_gallery.html. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

10. Figure 20: Rothschild collection sheet/ [sic.] and another six card [sic.] sheet from Bibliotheque d’Ercole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts (Bolognese pattern). URL: http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/rothschild/. Retrieved 12 September 2019.

11. Figure 21: Jeu de tarot bolonais à enseignes italiennes, dit “alla Torre”. BNF Gallica. URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105109607. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

12. Figure 22: Jeu de Tarocchino à deux têtes. BNF Gallica. URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105088141. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

13. Figure 23: Jeu de Minchiate. BNF Gallica. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b105373422. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

14. Figure 24: Jeu de Minchiate à enseignes italiennes imprimé sur soie. BNF Gallica. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10336508z. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

15. Figure 25: WWPCM05238. World Web Playing Card Museum. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05238/d05238.htm. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

16. Figure 26: WWPCM05237. World Web Playing Card Museum. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05237/d05237.htm. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

17. Figure 27: WWPCM05239. World Web Playing Card Museum. URL: http://a.trionfi.eu/WWPCM/decks07/d05239/d05239.htm. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

18. Figure 28: Jeu de tarot à enseignes italiennes dit “tarot Viéville”. BNF Gallica. URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b10510963k. Retrieved: 14 May 2019.

 

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